CNS Syndrome Information
A concerning increase in incidence of central nervous system (CNS) cases have been submitted to veterinary diagnostic labs in late 2016 and early 2017. Diagnosticians in the laboratories have agreed to report CNS-related cases to the Swine Health Information Center (SHIC). Find information and resources on this emerging issue here along with other SHIC resources.
Guidelines for CNS Disease Case Identification and Reporting
The Swine Health Information Center (SHIC) convened a cross-section of experts involved in swine disease diagnostics at the veterinary diagnostic laboratories of Iowa State University, University of Minnesota and South Dakota State University to create specific guidelines to follow for improved accuracy and efficiency in reporting diseases of unknown etiology affecting the central nervous system (CNS).
Porcine Sapelovirus Fact Sheet
Porcine sapelovirus (PSV) is an RNA virus belonging to the genus Sapelovirus in the family Picornaviridae. PSV is closely related to members of the Enterovirus genus and has previously been known as porcine enterovirus 8 (PEV-8). There are three species within the Sapelovirusgenus: simian, avian and porcine (sapelo: simian, avian, and porcine entero-like viruses). The porcine and avian sapeloviruses consist of a single serotype, while the simian sapelovirus has three.
Porcine Teschovirus Fact Sheet
Porcine teschovirus (PTV) is a non-enveloped RNA virus in the genus Teschovirus, family Picornaviridae. There are 13 known PTV serotypes. PTV-1 is associated with teschovirus encephalomyelitis; PTV-2, -3, and -5 are associated with Talfan disease (a milder presentation of polioencephalomyelitis). Additional presentations are seen with other serotypes.
CNS VDL Reports March 2017
Veterinary diagnostic laboratories have reported a low but concerning incidence of central nervous system (CNS) cases submitted over the last six months. Diagnosticians in the laboratories have agreed to report CNS-related cases to the Swine Health Information Center (SHIC). A case definition that triggers a report includes clinical symptoms of ataxia, muscle tremors or muscle weakness and CNS signs implicating brain, brain stem or spinal cord functional compromise.
Porcine Sapelovirus Case Study
An acute outbreak of atypical neurologic disease in 11-week-old pigs was recently investigated by the Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic laboratory (ISUVDL). The farm was located within region 5 according to the Swine Health Information Center emerging disease rapid response regions of the U.S.
SHIC Support for Diagnostic Fees
There are incidents of high or ongoing morbidity or mortality where an etiology is either not identified or there is a strong suspicion that the identified etiology is not the likely cause of the outbreak. In these cases, additional support for the fees of further diagnostic workup may help to identify newly introduced or emerging swine diseases. SHIC is offering funding for approved diagnostic testing in approved cases.
A recent Swine Health Information Center (SHIC)-assisted investigation into a case of increased death loss associated with acute onset of CNS signs, initially described as tremors, in a grow-finish herd illustrated how SHIC can offer assistance in the quest to gain insights about unresolved cases, regardless of outcome.