Swine Disease Matrix

The Swine Health Information Center, in collaboration with the National Pork Board and the National Pork Producers Council, has developed a prioritized list of endemic and foreign swine pathogens – the Swine Disease Matrix. The complete Matrix includes an assessment of the diagnostic capabilities for selected pathogens based on a review of available literature.

The Swine Disease Matrix originated in an USDA literature review looking for a PEDv pathway into the US. The American Association of Swine Veterinarians reviewed and modified it. Then, in 2015, SHIC took over the responsibility of oversight. It is a living document; a SHIC working group regularly reviews it for content and priority. When a new or emerging disease is identified, there are also ad hoc considerations of content and priority.

The SHIC Monitoring and Analysis Working Group prioritized the list to help focus the SHIC on the U.S. pork industry’s highest risks. The Working Group scored the risk using three criteria, each measured on a 1 (least) to 10 (most) scale.

Criterion 1: The likelihood of foreign pathogens entering the U.S. and the likelihood of an endemic pathogen becoming recognized as the cause of an emerging disease or syndrome. Some of the listed pathogens are already endemic in the U.S. and others are foreign.

Criterion 2: The expected effects of disease from pathogens on production economics. The range of likely morbidity, mortality, and production losses from listed pathogens were taken into account.

Criterion 3: Probable effect on domestic and/or international markets from an outbreak due to listed pathogens. The U.S. pork industry exports a significant and growing percentage of its production. It is necessary for industry marketing to help domestic markets understand pork production.

The Swine Disease Matrix is prioritized based on the average 1-10 score of each pathogen in the three above criteria. The Working Group will continue to review and update the Matrix as new conditions and information emerge.

Updated: April 2017

Criteria for Average Risk Score 

1) Likelihood of entry

2) Economic effects on production post entry

3) Effects on domestic and international markets

Representative Virus Affecting Swine
➜ Visit fact sheet
Production Impact Domestic/Foreign Market Impacts Likelihood of Introduction into the U.S. or Emergence of a Domestic Disease Numerical Average
Foot and mouth disease virus 9 9 9 9.0
Classical swine fever virus 9 9 5 7.7
African swine fever virus 9 9 5 7.7
Pseudorabies virus ➜ 8 8 5 7.0
Influenza A virus 4 8 8 6.7
Nipah virus ➜ 8 9 2 6.3
Ebola-Restin ➜ 8 9 2 6.3
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus 6 4 7 5.7
PRRS virus (Chinese high path) ➜ 6 5 5 5.3
PRRS virus 6 3 6 5.0
Porcine teschovirus (Teschen/PTV1) ➜ 5 5 5 5.0
Japanese enchephalitis virus ➜ 5 5 4 4.7
Getah virus ➜ 5 5 4 4.7
Transmissible gastroenteritis virus 5 4 4 4.3
Menangle virus ➜ 4 4 4 4.0
Porcine circovirus 4 2 5 3.7
Circovirus 3 ➜ 4 2 6 3.7
Porcine rotavirus 4 1 5 3.7
Swine vesicular disease virus 4 3 2 3.0
Vesicular exanthema of swine virus ➜ 3 4 2 3.0
Porcine rubulavirus ➜ 5 2 2 3.0
Seneca Valley virus ➜ 3 3 3 3.0
Porcine parvovirus 3 1 5 3.0
Porcine deltacoronavirus 3 2 3 2.7
Porcine parainfluenza 1 virus ➜ 3 2 3 2.7
Atypical swine pestivirus ➜ 3 2 3 2.7
Influenza C virus ➜ 2 2 2 2.0
Porcine respiratory coronavirus ➜ 2 2 2 2.0
Hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus ➜ 2 2 2 2.0
Encephalomyocarditis virus ➜ 3 1 2 2.0
Hepatitis E virus ➜ 1 3 1 1.7
Porcine adenovirus ➜ 2 1 2 1.7
Porcine kobuvirus ➜ 2 1 2 1.7
Porcine sapovirus ➜ 2 1 2 1.7
Orthoreovirus ➜ 2 1 1 1.3
Sendai virus ➜ 1 1 2 1.3
Porcine cytomegalovirus ➜ 2 1 1 1.3
Vesicular stomatitis virus ➜ 1 1 1 1.0
Chikungunya virus ➜ 1 1 1 1.0
Rabies virus 1 1 1 1.0
Porcine bocavirus ➜ 1 1 1 1.0
Porcine astrovirus ➜ 1 1 1 1.0
Swine pox virus ➜ 1 1 1 1.0
Porcine sapelovirus ➜ 1 1 1 1.0
Porcine torovirus ➜ 1 1 1 1.0
Swine papillomavirus ➜ 1 1 1 1.0