Domestic Disease Monitoring Reports
January Domestic Disease Monitoring Report
January 9, 2019
The Swine Health Information Center’s Domestic Swine Disease Monitoring Report this week shows expected activity in December. Data for the report is collected from the Veterinary Diagnostic Labs at Iowa State, South Dakota State, and Kansas State Universities as well as the University of Minnesota. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome detection decreased in December after two months of increase and remained in the predicted range the last three weeks of 2018. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus detection by PCR also continues to meet expected values which means an increase in activity for the same time frame based on previous years’ reports. Streptoccocus suis remains the major agent causing CNS. For the beginning of 2019 winter, porcine circovirus had a greater percentage of detection, but similar number of cases, when compared with full winter season of previous years.
December Domestic Disease Monitoring Report
December 4, 2018
Few monitored diseases were above expected or predicted level in the November domestic swine disease report from the Swine Health Information Center (SHIC). Porcine reproductive and respiratory virus was one of those above expected levels. A trend to increasing positivity in adult/sow and unknown categories was noted. There was a spike in porcine delta corona virus PCR positive tests but only a limited number of transmissible gastro enteritis cases. Accession ID cases investigated for central nervous system (CNS) issues rose with nearly 9 percent more in November 2018 than the same month in 2017. The number of cases per agent have similar distribution this fall, compared to the same season of previous years. Streptoccocus suis is still the major agent causing CNS. Detection of influenza A (IAV) as a single agent was less frequently detected in 2018 than previous Fall seasons of 2017 and 2016.
November Domestic Disease Monitoring Report
November 5, 2018
In October 2018, greater than 6,000 porcine reproductive and respiratory (PRRS) PCR cases were reported for the first time in a single month. This volume perhaps indicates the beginning of the PRRS season for the 2018-2019 winter. Level of detection of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) by PCR continues to meet the expected value, indicating the increased detection level is within the expected for the beginning of the winter season. Porcine deltacoronavirus PCR testing still has positivity above expected for the year of 2018. There was one case of E. rhusiopathiae in the 2018 fall season, and similar detection number for porcine corona virus 2, and PSV for 2018 and 2017 fall seasons. There were two cases of pestivirus (Shaker Pig Syndrome) for fall season of 2018, which is above the same season of 2016 and 2017. Association of influenza A virus and S. suis (IAV S. suis) in respiratory tissues was more frequent in fall season of 2018 than previous years. L. intracellularis (L.intra) and Salmonellas (Salm) had increased frequency of detection in fall seasons over the recent years. From the last report information, coccidia (COCC) continues to be a frequently detected agent. All COCC cases were diagnosed as enteritis.
October Domestic Disease Monitoring Report
October 1, 2018
The October Domestic Disease Monitoring Report shows porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) RNA detection level has been within the predicted values in the previous nine weeks. The pattern of detection of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDv) RNA continues to meet the expected values. Porcine deltacorona virus (PDCoV) detection has returned to expected values though there has been a relative increase in detection of this virus in the last three weeks of every year since 2015. Based on the predicting model, it is expected a relative increase in PEDv and PDCoV should be expected upcoming weeks. Fall 2018 is starting with detection of respiratory virus cases similar to this time in previous years. COCC is appearing between the top 10 agents detected on enteric tissues. As a comparison, there were 12 cases in September, October, and November 2017, and 14 cases in the three months of 2016.
September Domestic Disease Monitoring Report
September 4, 2018
The September Domestic Disease Monitoring Report shows porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is at predicted values for the summer while porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is moving toward predicted values. Regarding central nervous system agents, Streptococcus suis was the major one detected this summer. It was noted Haemophilus parasuis slightly increased detection when compared with previous years. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome, Influenza A virus, and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae were the three major agents detected on respiratory cases this summer. Mycoplasma hyorhinis appears one of the more frequent agents detected this summer, perhaps due recent increase in requests for testing along with more accurate coding for the information by diagnosticians. The combination Haemophilus parasuis and Mycoplasma hyorhinis has increased in 2018 when compared to 2016 and 2017.
Rotavirus, PEDV, Lawsonia intracellularis, E. coli, and Salmonella sp. are the most frequent agents detected on enteric tissue this summer. Since the introduction of PEDV, the overall number of enteric cases testing positive increased over time. With the introduction of PEDV in 2013 and PDCoV in 2014 to the US swine industry, the dynamic of detection of enteric agents changed significantly. Transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus has been practically undetected on enteric tissue since 2013. Also, the proportion of Brachyspira spp cases has decreased, perhaps due to improvements on biosecurity and implementation of programs to control and eliminate the pathogen in production systems. This summer, Rotavirus and E. coli, followed by Rotavirus and PEDV, were the most frequent agent detected with multiple occurrence on enteric tissue.
August Domestic Disease Monitoring Report
August 6, 2018
In the July domestic disease monitoring report, for the first time, data on porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) came from the Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Lab (VDL) and South Dakota State University Animal Disease Research Diagnostic Lab with contribution from the University of Minnesota and Kansas State University VDLs. This is a result of the project the Swine Health Information Center (SHIC) coordinated and partially funded to streamline the way the VDLs report and share their data.
July Domestic Disease Monitoring Report Posted
July 2, 2018
The July SHIC Domestic Disease Monitoring Report shows PRRS activity still above the predicted value for 2018, with a recent spike in sow farms. There is a seasonal pattern of detection of respiratory agents, with summer having relatively lower detection of respiratory agents when compared to other seasons. There was an increase on detection rate of pathogens associated with respiratory disease in 2017 and 2018 compared to previous years. This increase in detection rate may be associated with implementation of better diagnostic practices by field veterinarians contributing for higher number of submissions for agent detection. Viral agents such as PRRSV, IAV, and circovirus have been detected frequently in respiratory cases with multiple agents.
June Domestic Disease Monitoring Report
June 6, 2018
PRRS and Deltacoronavirus Activity Noted in Domestic Disease Monitoring Report
May 2, 2018
There has been a recent increase in cases testing positive for PRRS virus by rRT-PCR. The domestic disease monitoring project advisory group reached consensus that this is possibly due to a) increased use of processing fluid to monitor sow herds, and b) increased PRRS virus activity in grow/finish pigs. There has been a significant increase of processing fluids to test for PRRS virus on sow farms. This specimen was not reported in previous years, and in 2018 accounted for more than 5 percent of total the submissions at the participating VDLs for PRRS rRT-PCR testing.
Deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) activity continues high relative to predicted values based on previous years. There was a 19 percent increase in the number of Central Nervous System (CNS) cases in 2017 compared to 2016. Partial data for spring 2018 indicates a 30 to 40 percent increase in CNS disease compared to spring months of 2017. Streptoccocus suis has been the main pathogen associated with CNS disease.
The May Swine Health Information Center-funded Domestic Swine Disease Monitoring Report PRRS data now includes data from the Iowa State University and University of Minnesota veterinary diagnostic labs. Work to integrate other disease information and laboratories into the report continues.
Update on PRRSV, PEDV, PDCoV, and Central Nervous System Syndrome News – SHIC’s Second Domestic Disease Monitoring Report
April 5, 2018
The second Swine Health Information Center (SHIC) domestic disease monitoring report includes veterinary diagnostic laboratory (VDL) information about porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and porcine enteric coronavirus (PEDV) testing, documents an increased porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) detection, as well as news on an increase in central nervous system (CNS) tissue submission.
This VDL collaborative project is aided by an advisory group to help give context to the data and interpret it. The goal is to aggregate swine diagnostic data from participating reporting VDLs then present it in an intuitive format via shared reports and web dashboards. The current report uses Iowa State University VDL information to refine the template with plans to add additional VDLs as soon as possible.
Per the report, sequences requested for PRRSV in the first three months of 2018 were up 16 percent over the same time period in 2017, suggesting increased interest in better characterizing viruses during outbreaks. Data further show a significant increase in percentage of cases testing positive for PRRSV by rRT-PCR, which may be an indication of increased PRRSV activity this winter.
Similarly, the report reflects PEDV information consistent with ongoing, expected incidence of positive testing and anecdotal data on an increase in PDCoV detection. The advisory group’s perception is that the PDCoV increase may be related to clinical disease in suckling pigs, as well as non-clinical, incidental, PDCoV detection in finishing-age pigs.
Information on the incidence of CNS pathogens are based on their identification in tissues from clinical CNS cases. Data show a significant increase in submission of tissues related to clinical CNS signs, again consistent with reports from the field on increased CNS cases.
SHIC’s domestic disease monitoring report describes dynamics of disease detection by pathogen over time, specimen, age group, and geographical space. These reports, as well as SHIC’s global disease monitoring reports, are posted on the SHIC website: www.swinehealth.org and accessible from the homepage navigation menu under Disease Monitoring.
Initial Domestic Disease Monitoring Report
March 1 ,2018
The Swine Health Information Center (SHIC) has posted the first monthly domestic swine disease monitoring report. The report is the result of the veterinary diagnostic lab (VDL) data standardization project SHIC supported. Beginning with monitoring of PEDv, PDCoV, and PRRS, the model describes dynamics of disease detection by pathogen over time, specimen, age group, and geographical space. Additional diseases will be included as the program is refined.
The domestic monitoring report is a SHIC-funded, veterinary diagnostic laboratory collaborative project. An advisory group has been formed to help give context to the data and interpret it. The goal is to aggregate swine diagnostic data from participating reporting VDLs then present it in an intuitive format via shared reports and web dashboards. The report uses data from VDL cases with molecular tests (PCR-based assays and virus genotyping) for these viruses. For this first report, all data was from the Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory. The University of Minnesota VDL will incorporate their data beginning with the next report.
To implement infectious disease control and management, precise, science-based information is required. By funding this project, SHIC leads the industry toward better swine health information to positively impact the long-term sustainability of pork production. The near real-time information on swine disease made available by this system will enable better, faster, and more effective response to endemic or foreign infectious diseases. The result is a stronger, more vibrant U.S. pork industry.