SHIC Updates APPV Fact Sheet Noting Need for Further Research

The atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) fact sheet has been updated in the Swine Health Information Center (SHIC) Swine Disease Fact Sheet Library. As part of SHIC’s mission to protect the health of the US swine herd, providing guidance and resources for producers, practitioners, and diagnosticians who are on the front lines of swine health concerns is an ongoing effort. This updated APPV fact sheet captures the latest information available on this swine health concern.

APPV was identified in the US in 2015 and is genetically distinct from other pestiviruses including Bungowannah virus, which emerged in Australia in 2003. APPV is widely found, but its clinical relevance is poorly understood. To date, APPV has been associated only with congenital tremors (CT) in newborn pigs. In addition to muscle spasms, posterior paresis and splayleg can be seen. Litters from gilts are most commonly affected. In litters with CT, morbidity ranges from 0–100%. There is no treatment for APPV and no commercial vaccine.

Based on current knowledge of APPV, prevention and control strategies that might be useful include acclimatization of replacement gilts to ensure APPV exposure before breeding, testing of semen for the presence of APPV RNA prior to artificial insemination, and feedback on farms with clinical CT cases, until an effective commercial vaccine is available. Vertical transmission is associated with the development of CT. Horizontal transmission also occurs, but infection seems to be transient, and piglets do not develop clinical signs of disease.

More information is needed on the epidemiology, transmission, and pathogenesis of APPV to assess its impact on the swine industry and develop preventive measures.

SHIC, launched in 2015 with Pork Checkoff funding, continues to focus efforts on prevention, preparedness, and response to novel and emerging swine disease for the benefit of US swine health. As a conduit of information and research, SHIC encourages sharing of its publications and research. Forward, reprint, and quote SHIC material freely. SHIC is funded by America’s pork producers to fulfill its mission to protect and enhance the health of the US swine herd. For more information, visit http://www.swinehealth.org or contact Dr. Sundberg at psundberg@swinehealth.org.