The Swine Health Information Center (SHIC) joined with the University of Minnesota to sponsor a workshop on April 29, 2019, to increase understanding of the vitamin supply chain and identify potential risk factors for introducing foreign animal disease (FAD) to the US. Within the vitamin supply chain meeting report, authors Dr. Gerald Shurson and Dr. Pedro Urriola of the University of Minnesota describe current industry understanding of vitamin manufacturing, transport, and vitamin premix composition/manufacturing processes as well as quality assurance and biosecurity programs. They address the pork producers’ need to select reputable suppliers for all feed ingredients and describe the challenges of potential mitigation procedures for vitamin products and premixes. The vitamin supply chain report also includes a detailed listing of vitamin manufacturers in China and their web sites as well details on biosecurity procedures and third-party audits of many of these facilities.
Estimates of the quantity and percentage of total vitamins imported into the United States from China in 2018 (Source: United States International Trade Commission; https://dataweb.usitc.gov/)
|Vitamin imports (human and animal use)||kg||Estimated % of total vitamin imports|
|Vitamin E and related||27,689,710||55|
|Pantothenic acid (B5)||4,781,253||70|
|Other unmixed vitamins and derivatives||4,467,908||70|
Vitamins are essential nutrients required by swine to optimize health, productivity, and well-being. The US pork industry is dependent on vitamins manufactured in China, where African swine fever (ASF) continues to spread. To meet US demand, there are limited options for sourcing vitamins, and in some cases no option other than Chinese-origin products. The risk of ASF or other FAD being introduced to the US via vitamin imports appears to be low, however, a legitimate concern due to the consequences.
Risk factors for ASF contamination and transmission via the vitamin supply chain include purchase from unconventional brokers without necessary documentation, cross contamination of vitamin premixes with other feed ingredients (particularly porcine-derived ingredients), porcine-derived gelatin used in vitamins A and D3, and ground corn cobs used as carriers during the choline chloride manufacturing process.
The Swine Health Information Center (SHIC) continues to engage with multiple stakeholders on African swine fever (ASF) preparedness, prevention, and response related efforts as it fulfills its mission to protect and enhance the health of the US swine herd. SHIC’s involvement in these activities, in addition to its ongoing work, includes coordination with many pork industry groups, government agencies, members of academia, and other stakeholders. SHIC-funded projects have resulted in deliverables to the industry on the issues of feed and feed ingredients as vectors, feed holding times, feed mitigants, and more. SHIC also maintains consistent communication with industry partners, together coordinating and complementing activities as a united effort on behalf of US producers.
The following outlines the ASF-related efforts and activities specific to SHIC since last August. These, in addition to SHIC’s ongoing work, represent an intense focus on this threat to the US swine herd.
ASF Crisis Team – Organized by the National Pork Board. Participants from the American Association of Swine Veterinarians, National Pork Board, National Pork Producers Council, North American Meat Institute, and SHIC.
National Swine Disease Council – Staffed by the American Association of Swine Veterinarians, National Pork Board, National Pork Producers Council, North American Meat Institute, and SHIC.
National Pork Board African Swine Fever Task Force – Organized by the National Pork Board per the direction of its Swine Health Committee.
Feed Safety Task Force – Participants include pork and feed industry representatives, and pork industry associations, including SHIC, as well as USDA and FDA personnel who attend.
AASV’s Committee on Emerging and Transmissible Diseases – Committee members are AASV members as well as SHIC.
Feed/Dust Sampling Methods
Feed Half-Life Studies
ASF and Foreign Animal Disease Viruses Survival Under Transport Conditions
Feed Mitigant Study
Foot-and-Mouth Disease Oral Infectious Dose in Feed Study
Holding Time Calculations (Revised)
Disease Status Information by Country
African Swine Fever Vitamin Supply Chain Workshop
African Swine Fever Soybean Meal Supply Chain Workshop
Customs and Border Protection
In this month’s Domestic Swine Disease Monitoring Report, it is reported porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) activity remains within predicted values for 2019. There was a slight decrease in PRRSV diagnoses in wean-to-market pigs from May (37.81%) to June (36.52%), however, it increased to 44.53% during the first full week of June. This increase was mostly due to cases in North Carolina and Iowa. The percentage of positive cases in adult/sow animals decreased to 20.87% in June, the lowest level of detection for 2019 in this phase. The level of detection of enteric coronaviruses were within expected values in June with decreased diagnoses in all age categories. None of the 2288 cases tested for transmissible gastroenteritis virus in June were positive. The report also notes changes in recording and reporting of diagnostic codes at the Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Lab so there are no enteric, respiratory, nor central nervous system results in this edition. The online dashboards will be updated once the new system is in place, which is expected in July 2019.
The first cases of African swine fever (ASF) were reported in Laos on June 20. Laotian authorities said there were seven outbreaks of ASF in the southern province of Saravane. The July Swine Health Information Center Global Swine Disease Monitoring Report contains details. The report also covers the largest outbreak of ASF in Vietnam since the start of the epidemic. On June 25, authorities of Dong Nai province released a statement reporting it was discovered on a farm with 18,000 pigs. Also in the July report, the USDA Feral Swine Eradication and Control (FSCP) Pilot Program is discussed. The USDA is offering $75 million in funding for the eradication and control of feral swine through the program in a joint effort between USDA’s Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) and Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS).